Acne and Stressful Personalities: A Rorschach Study

Forty-one moderate to severe acne vulgaris patients from an acne treatment center were studied in order to determine: (1) personality (Rorschach) variables that characterize acne patients; (2) whether any of these variables serve to predict treatment outcome; (3) whether there is a relationship between recent stress and severity of acne; and (4) whether there is a relationship between compliance and treatment outcome. Subjects were administered the Rorschach, using Exner’s Comprehensive System.

Self-ratings of stress, compliance, and acne severity were obtained at each visit over a three month period, to determine possible correlations of these variables with treatment outcome (as measured both by self ratings and nurses’ ratings). Results showed adult acne patients to be significantly different (p < .0001) from the normative nonpatient Rorschach sample on thirteen personality variables.

Their scores were lower than the norms on the following eleven variables: R; D; FC; Sum C; Sum of weighted C; T+TF+FT; X+%; F+%; Afr; Blends; and frequency of EA > ep. Their scores were higher than the norms on two variables: S and (VBAR)Zd(VBAR) > 3. The adolescent acne subjects’ scores were significantly (p < .01) lower than the norms on six variables; D; T+TF+FT; X+%; F+%; Afr; and Cf+C+Cn. Neither stress nor compliance served to predict outcome. There were insufficient treatment outcome data to test whether any of the Rorschach variables predicted response to medical treatment.

How to Find the Right Grand Rapids Chiropractor

If you live in Grand Rapids, and you’re looking for a chiropractor, then the following information will be of great value to you. The first step in the process is determining what type of ailment you’re trying to treat. Chiropractors, like doctors, specialize in different types of injuries. For example, sports injuries. This is one area where you can narrow down your search without having to even interview the chiropractor in person.

Insurance Coverage

Cost is always a consideration for most people, and your search may be limited if your insurance company uses a network system. Most HMO plans use a network of professionals that accept their plan. Your choices will be limited to this list if you want your insurance to cover the fees. If your insurance covers out-of-network chiropractors, then just make sure you know what you’re responsible for as far as co-pays.


If the chiropractor you’re interviewing has DC (Doctor of Chiropractic)after their name, then you can be assured that they have graduated from an accredited school with at least four years or more of studies.

State License: Each state has their own board exams as well as the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners (NBCE). To obtain a state license a chiropractor must pass these exams along with a degree from an accredited school.

Background Checks

If you want to dig a little deeper into the background of a potential chiropractor, then you can do so from the following list:

- Your insurance company.
- Your primary Doctor.
- Your state board examiners office.
- Personal references.

Years of Practice: For some people this is a big factor when searching for a chiropractor. We wouldn’t immediately discount a chiropractor solely based on this factor alone, there are other factors combined with this that will help you make your final choice.

Bedside Manners

Since you’re trusting your body in the hands of the Doctor you choose, you Must feel comfortable with their personality and demeanor. This is purely subjective based on your condition and expectations when you ask questions. Does the Doctor take the proper time to answer your questions? Does the Doctor take time to explain how the procedure works? Do you understand the explanations the Doctor is giving you? These are all things you must evaluate for yourself in the initial consultation. So, as mentioned it’s not just how long they have been practicing, but a combination of all these factors that contribute to finding the right chiropractor.


The best reference is one from someone who has had good results from a chiropractor you are considering. But this is not always possible, so you must trust your gut feelings based on the criteria above. In this case you do not want to get involved with any pre-paid treatment plans. These plans generally involve a package deal where you pay upfront, and it can be difficult to get your money back in the case that you don’t like the treatment after a session or two.

If you are looking for the right Grand Rapids chiropractor, visit for more information today.

Acne Remedies for College Students

leafy-greensThat first class of college is hardly a time to have zits taking over your face. And they way college students live with high stress and poor eating habits, they are all the more prone to get acne more often. Not to mention the hormone swings by being around so many good-looking coeds. Now before we get too far off topic, let’s take a look at some good home remedies and their application. We’ll also give a few healthy habits to help avoid acne in the first place.

Acne is a generally associated with too much fat intake, or a faulty fat metabolism. Good fatty acids such as Omega-3 and GLA fatty acids will help remedy this problem in addition to sesame seeds which are rich in oleic fatty acids. The best way to get a lot of oleic acid is through unrefined sesame oil, with wich you can serve as a salad dressing or a lower heat cooking oil.

Beta Carotene foods and those high in Vitamin A also help with inflammatory skin problems of all types, including acne.

Some example of foods high in beta carotene:

  • Carrots
  • Winter Squash
  • Leafy Greens such as Kale and others
  • Pumpkin
  • Spirulina
  • Blue-Green Micro-Algae

Other foods that will help you flush the excess fat from your system and help you break down the fat you tak in with your diet are also helpful.

They Include:

  • Cucumber
  • Mung Beans
  • Aduki Beans
  • Alfalfa Sprouts

If you want to continue to drink milk, the best option while you have acne is goats milk.

Also, you’ll want to eliminate or greatly reduce the following foods during an acne flare up, as they exacerbate your acne:

  • Spicy foods
  • Fatty foods
  • Greasy Foods
  • All sweets
  • Citrus Fruits
  • Oysters
  • Shrimp

These remedies should get you started on cleaning your body from the inside out. If you manage to change your diet, your acne will clear up, and, an added bonus, you’ll feel better and be able to think better so you can spend less time studying and still ace those college midterms and finals.

Stress, Acne, and the Menstrual cycle

Thirty-five college-age women (19 identified as “acne-prone” and 16 identified as “non-acne-prone”) filled out daily self-reports on stressful events, emotional and somatic changes, and number of facial acne lesions for 34-consecutive days. Menstrual cycle phases were determined for each woman.

The results indicated that stressful events, and in particular the perception of the impact of those events, had an important effect on the occurrence of acne lesions in the acne-prone group. Stress was a significantly less important factor in the occurrence of acne lesions in the non-acne-prone group. Acne-prone participants experienced no increase in acne lesions associated with menstrual cycle phase, while non-acne-prone participants experienced a flare-up of acne lesions associated with the premenstrual and menstrual phases.

In addition, while pain, water retention, and negative affect showed cyclic increases, there was no evidence of hyper-emotionality or hyper-responsivity to stress associated with the premenstrual or menstrual phases in either group. Stress increased emotional and somatic complaints throughout the menstrual cycle, but particularly during the intermenstrual phase in both groups. Limitations of the study, suggestions for future research, and counseling implications are discussed.

How Christian Alcohol Rehab Can Help

christian-rehab-treatmentAlcohol addiction can be hard to shake. Such an addiction can pull people away from their loved ones, result in serious health effects and ruin one’s school and work performance. The right rehabilitation center is one that understands how difficult treatment can be and offers mental, physical and faith-based support. This is a chance to help people get through this dark period and make it out on the other side. A Christian alcohol and drug rehab program offers support to people struggling with alcohol addiction.


Being around other people who have struggled with alcohol addiction is important. Often, people feel alone with their mistakes. Having other residents helps people admit they have a problem and work on getting better. A supportive community can share there darkest days, what sparked their wake up call and provides an invaluable sense of comfort. Participants can pray together, talk about their experiences and fears and just sit knowing that there are other people struggling with the same demons.

Professional Support

Christian rehabs are not just about praying. There are counselors and addiction specialists on call to help people through this dark period. Thus, people can dry themselves out, engage in counseling and figure out how to make amends for their behavior. Having professional help makes it easier to deal with this confusing time. It’s hard to get out of the dark pit of addiction without a hand or two to guide the way. Professionals on-site have dealt with addiction for many years and will have important advice for each step of the treatment process.

Addiction is a complicated situation. Anyone is susceptible to such dark times. People who find the courage to seek help and begin the healing process will need help. After all, addiction can ruin one’s relationships, sense of self and can cause real depression and physical issues. A Christian drug rehab program gives people a safe space to understand their addiction and work out their personal demons. There is light at the end of the tunnel for people who give such centers a chance.

Forgive One’s Self

There is a lot of guilt linked to alcohol addiction. A Christian treatment center helps people learn how to forgive themselves for their sins or descent into addiction. This is a chance to learn that mistakes happen and forgiveness has to start with the individual. Understanding that God loves all of people, even those who have fallen prey to addiction, can relieve people of self-loathing and make it easier to put down the bottle for good.

Rediscover One’s Faith

Alcohol can rip apart a person’s sense of self, confidence and faith. A Christian alcohol rehab center helps people reconnect with themselves, God, their faith and build up their self-esteem again. This is a chance to really learn how to live a meaningful and purposeful life. Using faith as a guide, individuals can work on finding the strength to steer clear of alcohol and heal both the body and mind.

Gender Bias and Sex Stereotyping

The relationship between sex stereotyping and judgments of mental health among mental health clinicians and persons in society-at-large is examined in this 1991 study. As a modified replication of the controversial 1970 Broverman study “Sex-Role Stereotypes and Clinical Judgments of Mental Health,” this study utilizes the responses of 45 men and 45 women professional population subjects and 45 men and 45 women general population subjects for a total population sample of 180 subjects. Subject responses to the 82 item revised Sex Role Questionnaire provide an index of how sex-stereotyped characteristics and behaviors influence judgments regarding the mental health of both men and women.

Cronbach Alpha analyses of the Sex Role Questionnaire reveal reliability Alpha coefficients for the clinical population which range from a low of.75 to a high of.94. Sex Role Questionnaire reliability Alpha coefficients for the general population range from a low of.76 to a high of.90.

Results indicate that persons in the total population sample tend to consider socially desirable feminine characteristics more often as healthy for women and adults (sex unspecified) than for men. These results suggest that a double standard of mental health exists for men and women in our society. The general standard of health with regard to degree of desirable “femininity” is actually applied only to women, while healthy men are perceived as significantly less healthy by “normative” adult standards. At the same time, results also indicate that this same total population sample tend to consider socially desirable masculine characteristics equally as healthy for women as for men and adults. Women also seem to be more closely aligned with the normative adult standard with regard to levels of socially desirable masculine characteristics than do men themselves.

Results substantiate that clinical judgments of mental health for men and women by practicing therapists differ significantly from those of persons in the general population. A double standard of mental health found in the general population sample (socially desirable feminine and masculine characteristics are more indicative of a healthy woman and healthy “normative” adult than a healthy man) finds no parallel in the clinical population sample results.

Results also indicate the existence of major differences between the reports from the 1970 Broverman clinical population and the reports from the 1991 clinical population. Whereas the 1970 clinical population results evidenced a double standard of mental health for men and women, the 1991 clinical population results evidence no such double standard.

Finally, results indicate that neither general nor professional judgments of mental health differ as a function of the sex of participant variable. Results also confirm that individual judgments of mental health do not differ as a function of the Bem Sex-role Classification of the research participant.

Computer and Web-Based Learning for Denver Students

Challenges to prepare students for survival in the 21st century have fueled large scale and multi-faceted reform efforts in American education. Two important strategies frequently mentioned in the body of educational reform literature are the use of computer technology including internet-based programs and increasing parental involvement in the educational development of children. A take-home or web hosted computer program has the potential to support both of these strategies. Such a program can be structured to serve as a vehicle to provide access to computers; support, enhance, and extend classroom learning; and involve parents in the education of their children.

The purpose of this article was to investigate the influence of a internet and computer program on the mathematics and web marketing achievement and attitudes of Denver Colorado Title I students. We also explore how families used the take-home computers and web classes and how parents facilitated computer use and learning activities.

Participants in the study were recruited from three Denver, Colorado schools in the same school district and included 120 Title I students. One Hundred twelve students completed the study, 55 in the experimental group and 57 in the control group. Part of the curriculum was based on search engine optimization modules and internet marketing produced by the Denver SEO Kings think tank, a forerunner in the search strategy in Denver where the test was conducted.

The parents of the students in the experimental group participated in one mandatory ninety-minute training session on the care and operation of the computer and strategies for working with their child on the computer. A computer accessed selected internet search engine marketing and mathematics software was then provided to each of the families for a 14-week period. Students in the control group and their parents did not receive a computer. Curriculum based assessments were used as measurements of search marketing mathematics achievement and attitude change.

A randomized groups pretest-posttest design was used to investigate changes in the marketing and math gain score–difference between the posttest and pretest scores–and an attitude change score in both the treatment and control groups. Parental involvement was studied via a survey, interviews, and home-visits.

The major conclusions of the study were: (1) There was no difference in SEO and mathematics gain scores of students in the experimental and control groups. (2) Students in the experimental group did not develop more positive attitudes towards math and web optimization than students in the control group. (3) Parents of students who had computers and web access were not more involved in their children’s education at the end of the study than were parents of students in the control group.

Occupational Health and Safety for Hospitals

For moral, economic and legal reasons, a hospital must be concerned with maintaining the health and preventing injuries among its employees. Employees of hospitals may be exposed to a wide variety of potentially hazardous environments. As medical technology advances new hazards will continually be added to the hospital environment. Hospital employees have comparable work injury rates with many manufacturing industries. The cost of workmen’s compensation insurance and lost work time are of concern to hospital administrators.

A comparison of the 1972 National Institute of Occupational Safety and Healths Hospital Occupational Health Services Study and a similar study of nineteen selected Oklahoma hospitals indicated there was little change in the provision of health and safety services hospitals offer their employees. These results show that hospitals generally rely on a hospital safety committee to provide employee safety service. Other results indicate the services in health and safety which are provided to employees are fragmented with no one individual specifically responsible for a comprehensive program.

A Hospital Department Occupational Health and Safety Control Survey of 104 departments in medium size hospitals and 112 departments in large size hospitals indicated that both approach the problem of employee health and safety protection in the same way. Also neither size hospital departments keep records concerning injury, lost work days or other types of similar rate concerning their employees.

The occupational health and safety program is intended to promote, maintain, and protect the health of employees while preventing injury to them. In order to accomplish this an occupational health and safety program must be comprehensive including functions as: occupational health; environmental health and epidemiology; occupational safety and hygiene; education, coordination and record keeping; and a hospital safety committee. These functions must provide: preplacement medical evaluation, periodic health examinations, care of work related illness and injury, immunizations when needed, health counseling, environmental control and surveillance including accident investigation, and coordinated planning with other internal and external departments or authorities.

Existing fragmented hospital occupational health and safety programs should be consolidated into the management system. The program should be comprehensive in nature directed by one individual with authority and support personnel needed to carry out the program functions.

The exact manpower needs for this program will vary depending upon the magnitude of the program and the size of the hospital. When possible, existing positions should be transferred to the new program. It is important that the program director report to the top hospital administrator.

State Legislation and Local Health Departments in New Jersey

The major purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which local health departments of New Jersey had achieved compliance, particularly in the area of health education, with the Local Health Services Act of 1975 and the resulting updated Recognized Public Health Activities and Minimum Standards of Performance for Local Boards of Health which became effective April, 1978. The intent was to improve local health services by increasing the area covered by full time health officers and by mandating expansion of services, including health education. In addition, the legislature provided funding for crucial purposes through The Public Health Priority Fund Act of 1977.

A questionnaire was developed from a statement by statement review of the standards and the professional literature. Field tests of the questionnaire at three New Jersey health departments and committee review resulted in final revision.

All health departments (112) named on a list obtained from the New Jersey State Department of Health were the subjects of this survey. The questionnaire was mailed to the remaining 109 departments. Ninety four (86%) of the mailed questionnaires were returned. The data analyzed were the responses to the 97 completed questionnaires. In addition to frequencies and percentages tabulated for the gathered data, cross tabulations of variables were made and analyzed using the chi-square statistic and the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, as appropriate.

Findings and Conclusions. (1) Thirty three (34%) of the questionnaire respondents reported organizational changes in their health departments in attempts to comply with the updated standards. (2) No significant correlation between per capita expenditure and the size of the populations served by the departments was found. (3) One hundred and twenty four professionals were hired in order to comply with the standards, including 20 health educators and 13 full time health officers. (4) Compliance with the standards was also achieved by the sale and purchase of health services between departments. Forty six (47%) departments sold and 52 (53%) purchase services. (5) No significant relationships were found between a conservative or liberal political climate and per capita expenditure of the health departments. (6) Departments serving large populations were more likely to have health educators on staff than departments serving smaller populations. (7) Approximately two thirds of the respondents reported minimum educational requirements for health educators which were equally divided between bachelor’s degree, master of public health and other master’s degrees. (8) Funds were provided through budget allowances and health priority funding for health education activities mandated by the updated minimum standards by 86% to 96% of the departments, depending on the activity. (9) Health departments with health educators on staff are more likely to have determined their health education needs and are more likely to have planned specific health education programs from these needs, as required, than departments without health educators on staff. (10) Sixty-seven respondents contributed personal comments regarding problems in complying with the guidelines. The most frequently mentioned were: insufficient funds for the health department activities, lack of leadership and assistance given the local health departments by the State Department of Health and lack of support and/or understanding given local health departments by their governing body.

The findings of this study as reviewed and analyzed indicate extensive compliance with the Local Health Services Act.

College student stress: Who is resilient? Who is vulnerable?

This study explored and described the pervasive stress on college campuses. It focused on what it is that distinguished those students who did and those who did not develop physical, psychological and/or academic sequelae in response to exposure to stressors during their college experience. A comprehensive model of stress and coping, based on a review of the literature, was presented. The model was affirmed by the data analysis.

To conduct the research, 672 participants were randomly selected from those attending a Christian liberal-arts college in south central Pennsylvania. Of those who were selected and participated, 317 completed usable questionnaires. Data collection occurred over a one week period, using a self-report questionnaire. Subjects were categorized into Resilient (n = 43, 13.6%), Average (n = 96, 30.3%) and Vulnerable (n = 178, 56.1%) groups prior to data analysis.

Incorporated into the 192 item questionnaire was the Brief Personal Survey (Webb, 1988). It contains 88 items on nine subscales: denial, health distress, pressure-overload, anger-frustration, anxiety, depression, social support, philosophical-spiritual resources and coping confidence. Subjects also indicated their magnitude of stress on 78 items. The remaining items focused on demographics.

The data showed that Resilient subjects experienced less pressure-overload, anger-frustration, anxiety and depression than either Average or Vulnerable groups. Males and females were not found to differ with regard to pressure-overload, anger-frustration or depression. Females experienced higher levels of anxiety, stressor magnitude, health distress, social support and philosophical-spiritual resources.

Correlations between stressors were also reported, as were the rankings of stressors. These were presented on the basis of variables such as gender, academic year and academic major.

Because of the nature of the stressors identified, this study has shown the mutual importance of the curricular and cocurricular in the lives of college students. The findings of this research pointed out the clear and urgent need for various types of prevention and intervention programs. These were discussed from the perspective of institutional concerns, for curricular and cocurricular faculty, as well as for health educators.